Local Anesthetics in Dentistry

8 Aralık 2020by dentislife

What You Need to Know About Dental Anesthesia? 

Around 10 to 30 percent of people have anxiety and concerns about pain with dental procedures. Anxiety can delay getting treatment and that can make the problem worse.

Anesthetics have been around for over 175 years! In fact, the first recorded procedure with an anesthetic was done in 1846  using ether.

We’ve come a long way since then, and anesthetics are an important tool in helping patients feel comfortable during dental procedures.With lots of different options available, anesthesia can be confusing. We break it down so you’ll feel more confident before your next dental appointment.

What are the types of dental anesthetics?

Anesthesia means a lack or loss of sensation. This can be with or without consciousness.

Today there are many options available for dental anesthetics. Medications can be used alone or combined for better effect. It’s individualized for a safe and successful procedure.

The type of anesthetics used also depends on the age of the person, health condition, length of the procedure, and any negative reactions to anesthetics in the past.

Anesthetics work in different ways depending on what’s used. Anesthetics can be short-acting when applied directly to an area or work for longer times when more involved surgery is required.

The success of dental anesthesia depends on:

  • the drug
  • the area being anesthetized
  • the procedure
  • individual factors

Other things that may effect dental anesthesia include the timing of the procedure. Resurch Trusted Source also shows that inflammation can have a negative impact on the success of anesthetics.

Also, for local anesthesia, teeth in the lower jaw (mandibular) section of the mouth are harder to anesthetize than the upper jaw (maxillary) teeth.

There are three main types of anesthesia: local , sedation, and general Each has specific uses. These can also be combined with other medications.

Local anesthesia

Local anesthesia is used for simpler procedures like a cavity filling, which requires a shorter time to complete and is generally less complicated.

You will be conscious and able to communicate when you get a local anesthetic. The area will be numb, so you won’t feel pain.

Most local anesthetics take effect quickly (within 10 minutes) and last 30 to 60 minutes. Sometimes a vasopressor such as epinephrine is added to the anesthetic to increase its effect and to keep the anesthetic effect from spreading to other areas of the body.

Local anesthetics are available over the counter and as a prescription in gel, ointment, cream, spray, patch, liquid, and injectable forms.

They can be used topically (applied directly to the affected area to numb) or injected into the area to be treated. Sometimes, light sedation is added to local anesthetics to help relax a person.

EXAMPLES OF LOCAL ANESTHETIC

  • articaine
  • bupivacaine
  • lidocaine
  • mepivacaine
  • prilocaine

Sedation

Sedation  has several levels and is used to relax a person who may have anxiety, help with pain, or keep them still for the procedure. It can also cause procedure amnesia.

You might be fully conscious and able to respond to commands, semiconscious, or barely conscious. Sedation is categorized as mild, moderate, or deep.

Deep sedation can also be called monitored anesthesia care or MAC In deep sedation, you’re generally not aware of your surroundings and can only respond to repeated or painful stimulation.

The medication might be given orally (tablet or liquid), inhaled, intramuscularly (IM), or intravenously (IV).

There are more risks with IV sedation. Your heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing must be carefully monitored in moderate or deep sedation.

MEDICATIONS USED FOR SEDATION

  • diazepam (Valium)
  • midazolam (Versed)
  • propofol (Diprivan)
  • nitrous oxide

General anesthesia

General Anesthesia is used for longer procedures, or if you have a lot of anxiety that might interfere with your treatment.

You’ll be completely unconscious, have no pain, your muscles will be relaxed, and you’ll have amnesia from the procedure.

The medication is given through a face mask or IV. The level of anesthesia depends on the procedure and the individual patient. There are different risks with general anesthesia.

GENERAL ANESTHESIA MEDICATIONS

  • propofol
  • ketamine
  • etomidate
  • midazolam
  • diazepam
  • methoxeksital
  • nitrous oxide
  • desflurane
  • isoflurane
  • sevoflurane
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